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Publication of a New Book — Contested Bones

In late 2017, Contested Bones was published. Contested Bones is the result of four years of intense research into the primary scientific literature concerning those bones that are thought to represent transitional forms between ape and man. This book’s title reflects the surprising reality that all the famous “hominin” bones continue to be fiercely contested today—even within the field of paleoanthropology.


This work is unique in that it is the most comprehensive, systematic, and up-to-date book available that critically examines the major claims about the various hominin fossils. Even though the topic is technical, the book is accessible for a broad audience and is reported to be engaging even for nontechnical people.


Contested Bones provides new insights regarding the history of paleoanthropology, and the sequence of discoveries that bring us up to the current state of confusion within the field. The authors provide alternative interpretations of the hominin species. Surprisingly, the conclusions of the authors consistently find strong support from various experts within the field.


This book addresses a wide variety of important topics… “Which, if any, of the species gave rise to man?” “Did ‘Lucy’s’ kind walk upright like modern humans

or did they live among  the trees like ordinary apes?”  “Was  ‘Ardi’  the  earliest

human ancestor?” “Were ‘Erectus’ and the newly discovered ‘Naledi’ sub-human or were they fully human?” “What are the implications of the growing evidence that shows man coexisted with the australopithecine apes?” “Are the dating method consistently reliable?” “What does the latest genetic evidence reveal?” “Can we be certain that man evolved from an australopith ape?”


Contested Bones brings clarity to a fascinating but complex subject, and offers refreshing new insights into how the pieces of the puzzle fit together. For more information on Contested Bones or to order a copy, visit

Biological Information — New Perspectives (BINP)

In the summer of 2013, Biological Information - New Perspectives was published. The book includes the proceedings of a symposium of the same name, which was held at Cornell University in the spring of 2011. The findings of the symposium - which are reported in this book - bring into serious question the long held neo-Darwinian paradigm (the modern evolutionary theory), which has claimed for over a century that mutation/selection can explain all aspects of the biological realm. The editors summarize the findings of the 26 published scientific papers contained in this volume as follows:


"The is by far the most rigorous and in-depth re-examination of the sufficiency of neo-Darwinian theory. Never have so many well-credentialed scientists, representing so many disciplines, united so effectively to look beyond the standard mutation-selection paradigm."


For more information on this book or to place an order visit A condensed, reader friendly summary and commentary of the proceedings is also available as a freely downloadable PDF on the same website. The following 7 scientific papers (abstracts and PDF links below) are a few of the most signifcant findings in Biological Information - New Perspectives.


Dr. Sanford's Technical Scientific Publications Relating to Genetic Entropy (click on abstract or title)

Using Numerical Simulation to Better Understand Fixation Rates,and Establishment of a New Principle: Haldane’s Ratchet















Note: Click on abstract to zoom in.

Other Related Links
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